Thousands of bottles of wine may have been exported with false labels.
The Ministry for Primary Industries has laid more than 150 charges against a North Canterbury wine company and three of its directors.
Southern Boundry Wines Limited is accused of making false statements about the vintage and origin of its wine as well as concealing and destroying winemaking records.
The wines include sauvignon blanc and pinot noir from Waipara and Marlborough made between 2011 and 2013.
Charges have been laid against former directors Andrew Moore and Scott Berry, as well as winemaker Rebecca Cope.
New Zealand Winegrowers' acting CEO Jeffrey Clarke says the allegations could damage New Zealand's international repution.
"The New Zealand wine industry is highly regarded around the world and we cannot let the alleged actions of one winery damage a reputation that we have all worked so hard to build," he said.
"New Zealand wineries and grape growers are committed to the highest standards of product integrity and quality, and there are very good systems in place in New Zealand to ensure this."
The court has suppressed the wine names and brands.