Pope Francis has warned of a "global war" against traditional marriage and the family, saying both were under attack from gender theory and divorce.
Francis made his comments on Saturday in an impromptu response to a question at a meeting of the small Catholic community in the ex-Soviet republic of Georgia.
"You mentioned a great enemy of marriage: gender theory," the Pope said in response to a woman who had asked about it being taught in schools. But he did not elaborate.
Gender theory is broadly the concept that while a person may be biologically male or female, they have the right to identify themselves as male, female, both or neither.
"Today, there is a global war out to destroy marriage," Francis said. "Not with weapons but with ideas ... we have to defend ourselves from ideological colonisation."
The Pope has used the phrase "ideological colonisation" in the past to denounce what he says are attempts by rich countries to link development aid to the acceptance of social policies such as those allowing gay marriage and contraception.
Francis, who has been more accepting of homosexuals than his predecessors but opposes gay marriage, also appeared to be referring to it when he said "marriage is the most beautiful thing that God has created" adding that the Bible says God created man and woman to become one flesh.
In the same answer, he said the growing acceptance of divorce was another threat to the family.