Women who experience stress during pregnancy could be more likely to have children with personality disorders, research suggests.
The first study of its kind looking at the link between personality disorders and stress in pregnancy found children were at risk if their mothers experienced any level of stress while pregnant.
Children had more than three times the risk of developing a personality disorderby age 30 if their mother experienced any level of stress or moderate stress while pregnant, when compared to children whose mothers had no stress.
And they had almost 10 times the risk if their mother suffered severe maternal stress.
The findings, published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, held true even when a range of other factors - such as whether a mother smoked, felt depressed or had a prior history of mental illness - were taken into account.
The authors suggested that the developing brains of children could be affected by stress in pregnancy.
Other factors can also contribute to the development of personality disorders, such as a poor relationship with parents after birth or suffering a trauma, such as the loss of a parent or sexual abuse.
In total, 3,626 women from the Helsinki area of Finland were included in the study.
From the babies born, 40 developed a diagnosed personality disorder.
Ross Brannigan, lead author from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, said: "This study highlights the importance of providing mental health and stress support to both pregnant women and families during the antenatal and postnatal period".