Shocking images have been released showing the appalling conditions some animals are subjected to at tourist attractions that claim to help conservation.
The photos, which were taken in June at two turtle conservation centres in Indonesia, show turtles being housed together in small pens with shallow, dirty water.
The video also shows snakes with their mouths taped shut.
One of the attractions involved is Turtle Island in Bali.
Despite heavy criticism, no action has been taken. And now charities and tourists are calling for change.
Dr Chris Draper, head of animal welfare and captivity at charity organisation Born Free said the photos reveal systematic implementation of treatment that will harm the animals.
"These sensitive animals are being housed in horrendous conditions which risks the health of animals and people alike," he said.
"Taping a snake’s mouth closed shows, with immense cruelty, just how inappropriate it is for these animals to be exploited in this manner."
Sea turtles often migrate thousands of miles, and are largely solitary animals.
But at Turtle Island, each pool contains numerous turtles in confined concrete pens, with many of them clambering on top of one another.
An onlooker who spoke to a journalist at the centre claims to have seen the turtles being manhandled by visitors and dropped continuously from a height of several feet.
"It made me sick to my stomach and it’s shocking that these places are allowed to operate," the witness who didn't want to be identified, said.
"For the turtles to be taken out of the water and constantly passed around for photo opportunities would be very stressful for them."
One of the snakes pictured has a red and raw-looking mouth, while another shows a poorly looking civet kept in a rusty cage with no bedding.
There are six commercial centres on Turtle Island, also housing bats, owls and macaques, that claim to be helping the turtle population through "rescue, rehabilitation and release into the wild programmes".
It is reported that some of the turtles are captured by fisherman before being handed over to the centres. Once there, they will spend the rest of their lives being manhandled in captivity.
Several websites offer tours around the island, with one website even touting it as a place "dedicated to turtle conservation".
Dr Chris Draper's Born Free organisation has established a new online platform, Raise the Red Flag, which allows people to report sightings of captive wild animals suffering and make their voices heard."
Travellers are encouraged to report any such activity to the organisations website.