Hundreds of thousands of Brazilians have flooded the streets in the biggest ever protests calling for President Dilma Rousseff's removal, reflecting rising popular anger that could encourage Congress to impeach the leftist leader.
The demonstrations were the latest in a wave of anti-government rallies that lost momentum late last year but have regained strength as a sweeping corruption investigation nears Rousseff's inner circle.
From the Amazon jungle city of Manaus to the business hub of Sao Paulo and the capital Brasilia, protesters marched in a nationwide call for Rousseff to step down, raising pressure on lawmakers to back ongoing impeachment proceedings against her that just a few weeks ago appeared to be doomed.
Polling firm Datafolha estimated 500,000 demonstrators in Sao Paulo, the biggest rally in the city's history and more than twice the size of a major protest a year ago.
The military police, which routinely issues much higher estimates, put the figure at 1.4 million at the height of the demonstration.
Many blame Rousseff for sinking the economy into its worst recession in at least 25 years.
Opinion polls show that more than half of Brazilians favour the impeachment of the president, re-elected for a second four-year term in 2014.
Rousseff, who insists she will not quit, is the latest leftist leader in Latin America to face upheaval as a decade-long commodities boom that fuelled breakneck growth and social spending comes to an abrupt end.